The second of a two semester course that outlines the structure, function, and chemical properties of biological molecules. Topics include the catabolism of fatty acid and amino acids, the urea cycle, oxidative phosphorylation of the mitonchondria and chloroplast, the anabolic reactions of lipids, amino acids, nucleotides, and other nitrogen containing compounds, hormonal regulation and integration in mammalian metabolism and extensions of this concept into the function and regulation of genes and chromosomes, and the biological synthesis of DNA, RNA, and protein. Student majoring in Biology of Chemistry must earn a grade of C or higher. Cross-listed as BIOL 422. Prerequisite: BIOL/CHEM 420.
Prerequisite(s) / Corequisite(s):
Course Rotation for Day Program:
Offered even Spring.
Most current editions of the following:
Most current editions of the following:
Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry
By David L. Nelson and Michael M. Cox (Freeman) Recommended
Fundamental of Biochemistry: Life at the Molecular Level
By Donald Voet, Judith G. Voet, and Charlotte W. Pratt (Wiley) Recommended
By Jeremy M. Berg, John L. Tymoczko, Lubert Stryer (W.H. Freeman) Recommended
To integrate the structure and function of basic biomolecules in the cell as well as the macromolecules they form.
To understand the enzymes and functions of the catabolism of fatty acids and amino acids.
To understand function of the urea cycle.
To understand chemiosmotic theory and how it drives oxidative phosphorylation and photophosphorylation.
To examine the biosynthesis of carbohydrates, lipids, and nitrogen containing compounds such as amino acids, nucleoties, and hemes.
To understand how mammalian metabolism is regulated and integrated by hormones.
To understand the packaging of genes in DNA and the compaction of DNA into chromosomes.
To examine the regulation of gene expression by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems.
To understand the replication, recombination, and repair of DNA as well as the catabolism of unincorporated nucleotides.
To understand the types of various RNA and the transciption of functional mRNA in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes.
To examine the translation of mRNA into a polypeptide by the ribosome.
To examine the post-translational modifications and folding of proteins and their subsequent degradation.
Explain the various types of oxidation of fatty acids including odd-chain and unsaturated fatty acid oxidation.
Understand the physiological relevance of where oxidation of fatty acids take place, and relate impairment of steps in fatty acid oxidation to human diseases.
Understand the mechanisms of transport for fatty acids into the mitochondria via the carnitine shuttle and the metabolism and hormonal response of the body to ketone bodies.
Understand the breakdown of the common amino acids and be able to explain the use of the carbon backbones as they enter central intermediate metabolism.
Be able to name the enzymes and draw the structures of all intermediates of the urea cycle and relate its significance to the removal of nitrogen from eukaryotic systems.
Name and describe the functions of each part of the electron transport chain and how it contributes to oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria; explain the mechanisms of absorbing photons of light and their use in photophosphorylation in the chloroplast; able to describe the function and structural features of ATP synthase.
Be able to define Chemiosmotic Theory and apply the Nernst equation to predict the amount of energy available for ATP synthesis in both the mitochondria and the chloroplast.
Describe the dark reactions of the Calvin Cycle and be able to compare and contrast C3, C4 and CAM plants in the formation of glucose; understand how glucose is stored by plants as carbohydrates.
Name the enzymes and be able to describe the steps in fatty acid biosynthesis; describe the steps necessary for the elongation, desaturation of fatty acids; describe the steps necessary for transesterification of fatty acids to triacyglycerols.
Name the enzymes and steps involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol and the precursors of protaglandins biosynthesis.
Understand the enzymes involved in nitrogen fixation and the incorporation of nitrogen into amino acids by prokaryotes.
Be able to name the enzymatic steps and intermediates involved in the biosynthesis of amino acids, nucleotides, and heme.
Be able to describe the hormonal control of metabolism by mammalian systems in the liver, muscle, brain, and adipose tissues and the integration of these hormonal responses in these tissues; be able to describe the use of the Scatchard Plot and radio immunoassay to study hormonal signalling.
Be able to describe the packaging of genes in DNA and the packaging of DNA into a chromosome and how the compaction of the various structures of DNA is described via topography.
Be able to describe the regulation of genes in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes; understand the interactions between DNA and proteins, histone modifications and DNA packing, post-translational modifications of proteins; understand how the above protein-DNA modifications affect the cell-cycle, cancer, and apoptosis.
Understand the mechanisms and proteins involved in DNA replication, recombination, repair; understand the mechanisms that regulate the degradation of DNA and the catabolism of pyrimidines and purines.
Be able to name the various types of RNA and describe their various functions; describe the steps in regulating and initiating transcription in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes; describe the various methods of processing eukaryotic mRNA.
Understand the decoding of mRNA via the ribosome and tRNA during translation and the differences between prokaryotic and eukaryotic ribosomes including recruitment and initiation of translation.
Understand the process of protein folding and the chaperones involved in this process; understand the functions of the various post-translational modification including how they allow proper conformation of an active protein, regulation of protein activity, and a marker for degradation via proteases.
Catabolism of fatty acids, amino acids, and the urea cycle
Oxidative phosphorylation in the mitochondria and photophosphoylation in the chloroplast
Carbohydrate and lipid biosynthesis
Biosynthesis of nitrogen containing compounds: amino acids, nucleotides, and hemes
Hormonal regulation and integration of mammalian metabolism
Structural features of the DNA helix that allow for the packaging of genes into chromosomes
The metabolism of DNA, RNA, and proteins
The mechanisms of regulating gene expression in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems
Recommended maximum class size for this course: 25
NOTE: The intention of this master course syllabus is to provide an outline of the contents of this course, as specified by
the faculty of Columbia College, regardless of who teaches the course, when it is taught, or where it is taught. Faculty members teaching this
course for Columbia College are expected to facilitate learning pursuant to the course objectives and cover the subjects listed in the topical
outline. However, instructors are also encouraged to cover additional topics of interest so long as those topics are relevant to the course's
subject. The master syllabus is, therefore, prescriptive in nature but also allows for a diversity of individual approaches to course material.