## Online classes

Effective: Early Spring 8-Week 2017/2018

## PSYC 324: *Statistics For The Behavioral And Natural Sciences

### Course Description

The study of parametric and nonparametric statistics commonly used in the behavioral and natural sciences. Included are analyses of relationship and variance, as well as effect sizes associated with each. Cross-listed as BIOL/PSYC/SOCI 324.

Prerequisite: Grade of C or higher in MATH 150 or higher level math course (excluding MATH 200)

Proctored Exams: Final

Syllabus Contents

### Textbooks

#### Required

• (2015). Statistics Plain and Simple (Fourth Edition). Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.
• [ISBN-978-1-305-63890-7]

#### MBS Information

Textbooks for the course may be ordered from MBS Direct. You can order

### Course Overview

This course is designed to teach statistics through hands-on experience with real world data and data analyses. The emphasis will be on statistics that are most commonly used in research; you will read, apply, and interpret the statistics you are most likely to encounter in applied research settings. You will learn when to use different statistics, know how to quickly tackle a large data set, become familiar with reading output from computerized statistical programs, interpret effect sizes, and be able to use an online statistical tool and/or a statistical program to compute averages, variances, and standard deviations.

### Technology Requirements

Participation in this course will require the basic technology for all online classes at Columbia College:
• A computer with reliable Internet access
• A web browser
• Microsoft Office or another word processor such as Open Office

You can find more details about standard technical requirements for our courses on our site.

### Course Objectives

• To correctly choose the appropriate statistical test for a given set of data.
• To compute basic descriptive statistics.
• To compute basic parametric and nonparametric statistics.
• To interpret the results of descriptive and inferential statistical analyses.
• To use a packaged computer program (e.g. Statistica, SAS, SPSS, online tools, etc.) to compute statistics

### Measurable Learning Outcomes

• Explain the basic research designs, including correlational method and experimental method.
• Define sample and population.
• Describe the four scales of measurement.
• Create simple, relative and cumulative frequency distributions from data sets.
• Describe the characteristics of normal and non-normal distributions of data.
• Calculate measures of central tendency, including mean, median and mode using a scientific calculator.
• Describe when the use of mean, median and mode is appropriate.
• Using a scientific calculator, calculate measures of variability, including range, sample and population variances,standard error of the mean.
• Apply the standard deviation to a normal distribution.
• Describe the usefulness of transformed scores.
• Calculate and interpret z-scores, T scores and percentiles.
• Describe correlations between two variables (e.g., negative, positive, none).
• Interpret a scatter plot based on the slope of regression line and the dispersion of data around the line of best fit.
• Calculate a simple regression line and use it for prediction.
• Calculate the standard error of the estimate and demonstrate an understanding of the error in prediction.
• Describe and explain the basics of probability (e.g., region of rejection, alpha level, p).
• Describe and explain statistical hypothesis testing, including rejecting and failing to reject the Null Hypothesis.
• Describe and explain errors in statistical decision-making (i.e., Type I and Type II Errors).
• Define power of a statistical test and the ways in which power can be maximized.
• Calculate and interpret Confidence Intervals.
• Define independent samples.
• Correctly choose which statistic is appropriate for a given sample, calculate results and interpret, for the z-test and the single-sample t-test.
• Describe and explain when it is appropriate to choose parametric versus non-parametric statistics.
• Describe and explain the logic of an analysis of variance (ANOVA).
• Demonstrate competence for when it is appropriate to choose to calculate post-hoc comparisons (e.g., Tukey Test).
• Calculate post-hoc comparisons using a statistical software program and interpret the results.
• Correctly choose which statistic is appropriate for a given sample and develop a statistical hypothesis to test. Then using a statistical software program, develop a spreadsheet, calculate the main statistic and interpret the result. Next, calculate an effect size/coefficient of determination and interpret the result. This process should be demonstrated for at least 10 statistical tests.

A 900-1000 90-100%
B 800-899 80-89%
C 700-799 70-79%
D 600-699 60-69%
F 0-599 0-59%
Assignment Category Points Percent
Discussions (15) 200 20%
Final Exam (1) 400 40%
Total 1000 100%

### Schedule of Due Dates

Week 1
Assignment Points Due
Discussion 1 15 Wednesday/Sunday
Discussion 2 10
Week 2
Assignment Points Due
Discussion 3 15 Wednesday/Sunday
Discussion 4 10
Proctor Information N/A
Week 3
Assignment Points Due
Discussion 5 15 Wednesday/Sunday
Discussion 6 10
Week 4
Assignment Points Due
Discussion 7 15 Wednesday/Sunday
Discussion 8 10
Week 5
Assignment Points Due
Discussion 9 15 Wednesday/Sunday
Discussion 10 10
Week 6
Assignment Points Due
Discussion 11 15 Wednesday/Sunday
Discussion 12 10
Week 7
Assignment Points Due
Discussion 13 15 Wednesday/Sunday
Discussion 14 10
Week 8
Assignment Points Due
Discussion 15 25 Wednesday/Saturday
Final Exam 400 Saturday
Total Points 1000

### Assignment Overview

#### Discussions

All discussions must take place in the Discussions area, meaning that uploading an attachment as your post will not count.  Each week there will be two discussions.  The first discussion each week is worth 15 pts. and is due by 11:59 pm Central Time (CT) Wednesday of each week.  Responses to at least one classmate's post are due by 11:59 pm CT on Sunday, except for Week 8 which ends on Saturday.

The second discussion of the week focuses on problems and answers.  This discussion is worth 10 pts. each.  Your initial post is due by 11:59 PM Central Time (CT) on Wednesday and one response to a classmate’s post due by 11:59 PM CT on Sunday.  During Week 8, the response is due by 11:59 PM CT on Saturday.

Your responses to others’ posts should also be well developed, fully explaining your response to the classmates’ posts.  Make responses that add to the conversation and take it further; simply posting “I agree” or “good job” does not help develop ideas.  For maximum learning and point benefits, respond to at least two students’ posts.

Each week, you will take a quiz that may include matching or multiple-choice questions over the week’s readings.  The number of questions will vary based on the amount of content covered during the week.  You will only receive one attempt per graded quiz.  There is no time limit on these weekly quizzes.  You may use your book to help you find the answers.  Each quiz will open at 12:01 am CT on Monday and is due by 11:59 PM CT on Sunday of the week.

Each week, you will have access to an Ungraded Practice Quiz over the week’s readings.  This practice quizzes are always available and have no time limit.  These practice quizzes will give you an opportunity to test your knowledge before being graded on the content.

#### Final Exam

You will take a proctored, comprehensive final exam during Week 8 which will consist of 50 multiple choice and matching questions from all of the assigned readings throughout the course. You must provide your proctor information during Week 2.  It is your responsibility to schedule your exam with a proctor. You will be given only one attempt on the Final Exam.  You may not use your books or any other materials to assist you during this final exam.  The exam will open Monday of Week 8 at 12:01 AM CT and is due by 11:59 PM Saturday.

### Course Outline

Click on each week to view details about the activities scheduled for that week.

Week 1: Statistics: Introductions/Basic Math Requirements
• Read Statistics: Plain and Simple, Module 1
• Read Statistics: Plain and Simple, Module 2
• Read Statistics: Plain and Simple, Module 3
• Review Instructional Materials
Discussion 1

Describe yourself in the "Introductions" topic of our class. Please give us more than your name. Include your profession, hobbies, pets, and any additional information you care to share to help us get to know you. Also provide:

• the mileage on your car or truck
• the number of phones (all kinds) in your home

We’ll use this data later in the course.

Your initial post is due at 11:59 pm CT on Wednesday, with your response to at least one classmate by 11:59 pm CT on Sunday.

Discussion 2

Pose a question and a problem about statistics, such as "What is the difference between a population and a sample?" Or a question such as “What is the median of this set of numbers: 12, 14, 15, 12, 11, 9?”    (Making up math problems is not difficult, just randomly select a set of numbers for your classmate to compute!)  Do not quote or copy from the book or course contents, but feel free to paraphrase questions or problems that you find in the book and the practice problems.

Your initial post is due at 11:59 pm CT on Wednesday, with your response to at least one classmate by 11:59 pm CT on Sunday.

Complete Graded Quiz 1.  This is a multiple-choice quiz over the week’s readings.  The number of questions will vary based on the amount of content covered during the week.  You will only receive one attempt per graded quiz.  There is no time limit on these weekly quizzes.  You may use your book to help you find the answers.  Each quiz will open at 12:01 am CT on Monday and is due by 11:59 PM CT on Sunday of the week.

Week 2: Variability, Normal Distributions, Central Tendency, Statistical Polynomials, z Scores, Statistical Package Introductions, Types of Numbers
• Review Statistics: Plain and Simple, Module 2
• ReviewStatistics: Plain and Simple, Module 3
• Read Statistics: Plain and Simple, Module 4
• Read Statistics: Plain and Simple, Module 5
• Review Instructional Materials
Discussion 3

What are the four types of scales? Provide original specific examples of each. The last few students to do this really have to rack their brains to come up with original examples, so don’t put it off.

Your initial post is due at 11:59 pm CT on Wednesday, with your response to at least one classmate by 11:59 pm CT on Sunday.

Discussion 4

Post a math problem related to this week’s statistics or statistical analysis packages, and ask a question about SSP such as: "What does an asterisk (*) symbolize in a box plot?"

Your initial post is due at 11:59 pm CT on Wednesday, with your response to at least one classmate by 11:59 pm CT on Sunday.

Complete Graded Quiz 2.  This is a multiple-choice quiz over the week’s readings.  The number of questions will vary based on the amount of content covered during the week.  You will only receive one attempt per graded quiz.  There is no time limit on these weekly quizzes.  You may use your book to help you find the answers.  Each quiz will open at 12:01 am CT on Monday and is due by 11:59 PM CT on Sunday of the week.

Proctor Information
Submit your proctor form to the appropriate Dropbox folder by the end of the week. Remember to “Save” the form before placing it in Dropbox. See the Content area for more information.
Week 3: Variability and Normal Distributions, z Scores, One Sample t-tests, Percentiles, Sampling Distribution, Type I & II Errors, One and Two Tailed Tests, Statistical Power
• Read Statistics: Plain and Simple, Module 8
• Read Statistics: Plain and Simple, Module 9
• Read Statistics: Plain and Simple, Module 10
• Read Statistics: Plain and Simple, Module 11
• Review Instructional Materials
Discussion 5

Summarize the data from the introductions in Week 1, using SSP or EXCEL.  Although there are step by step instructions (in English) at the back of your textbook for using Microsoft Excel – it does not cover the graphing functions.    Also remember there is a learning curve with your first use of any software programs.   Don’t put this off until Sunday!  Using SSP (or Excel, either one, your choice) make up tables and graphs (these are Descriptive Statistics) for the Heights, Number of Phones and Mileage for our class.  The height data should be posted in a Histogram, as it is measurement data.  The Phone data should be posted in a Bar Chart, as it is categorical data.  The mileage data is measurement, but the numbers are so large, a Box Plot is the proper choice.

Your initial post is due at 11:59 pm CT on Wednesday, with your response to at least one classmate by 11:59 pm CT on Sunday.

Discussion 6

Post a question and a problem related to this week’s (or a prior week’s) statistics.

Your initial post is due at 11:59 pm CT on Wednesday, with your response to at least one classmate by 11:59 pm CT on Sunday.

Complete Graded Quiz 3.  This is a multiple-choice quiz over the week’s readings.  The number of questions will vary based on the amount of content covered during the week.  You will only receive one attempt per graded quiz.  There is no time limit on these weekly quizzes.  You may use your book to help you find the answers.  Each quiz will open at 12:01 am CT on Monday and is due by 11:59 PM CT on Sunday of the week.

Week 4: Probability and Hypothesis Testing, t-tests for Independent and Related Samples
• Review Statistics: Plain and Simple, Module 7 - 10
• Read Statistics: Plain and Simple, Module 11
• Read Statistics: Plain and Simple, Module 12
• Review Instructional Materials
Discussion 7

Select two terms from the Glossary (in the back of the book) and without using that term or word, provide a definition of it, using your own words.  Then read another classmates Glossary definitions and see if you can identity the two statistical terms they’ve defined in their own words.

Your initial post is due at 11:59 pm CT on Wednesday, with your response to at least one classmate by 11:59 pm CT on Sunday.

Discussion 8

Post a question and a problem related to this week’s t-test statistics.  Answer the question and problem posted by another student. Don’t make this week’s problem too difficult for your classmates!  Remember just randomly coming up with five or six X values may be all the originality needed for the problem.

Your initial post is due at 11:59 pm CT on Wednesday, with your response to at least one classmate by 11:59 pm CT on Sunday.

Complete Graded Quiz 4.  This is a multiple-choice quiz over the week’s readings.  The number of questions will vary based on the amount of content covered during the week.  You will only receive one attempt per graded quiz.  There is no time limit on these weekly quizzes.  You may use your book to help you find the answers.  Each quiz will open at 12:01 am CT on Monday and is due by 11:59 PM CT on Sunday of the week.

Week 5: Non Parametric Hypothesis Testing
• Read Statistics: Plain and Simple, Module 21
• Read Statistics: Plain and Simple, Module 22
• Review Instructional Materials
Discussion 9

Describe an experiment that would require use of one of the three different t-tests (One Sample, Correlated Samples, or Independent Groups), but don’t tell us which statistic you think should be used.  Then go into the discussion and look at another students t-test experiment, and tell us which of the three t-test statistics would be appropriate to analyze their data.

A RELATED SAMPLES t-test has “before and after” data from each subject, like a weight loss study.

An INDEPENDENT GROUPS t-test has one sample of participants, that are 1)  Randomly Assigned to two Groups, and then 2) one of the groups gets your Independent Variable (this is your experimental group).  The other group will not get your independent variable (the control group).  You then measure both groups on a dependent variable, and compare the groups in your t-test.   Note that this is a true experimental design, meaning if you follow this protocol, you can say the Independent Variable CAUSED a difference between the two groups.  For example, you might give one group alcohol, and then test both groups in a driving test to see what the effect of the alcohol is on their driving ability.

A ONE SAMPLE t-test has ONE SAMPLE, and it is being tested on a standardized test.  Such as the ACT, SAT, GRE, IQ…..any “standardized” that is published test is needed.  You might give your ONE SAMPLE group of participants an independent variable, such as a specialized training course and then see how they do when compared to the population average (that comes with a “published/standardized” test.  Or you might check a local population, against the national average.

Your initial post is due at 11:59 pm CT on Wednesday, with your response to at least one classmate by 11:59 pm CT on Sunday.

Discussion 10

Post a question and data for either a CHI-Square or a Wilcoxon problem.  Pattern the problem data after the practice worksheets.  Answer another student's problem and their non-parametric statistic problem as thoroughly and accurately as possible.

Your initial post is due at 11:59 pm CT on Wednesday, with your response to at least one classmate by 11:59 pm CT on Sunday.

Complete Graded Quiz 5.  This is a multiple-choice quiz over the week’s readings.  The number of questions will vary based on the amount of content covered during the week.  You will only receive one attempt per graded quiz.  There is no time limit on these weekly quizzes.  You may use your book to help you find the answers.  Each quiz will open at 12:01 am CT on Monday and is due by 11:59 PM CT on Sunday of the week.

Week 6: Correlation and Multiple Regression
• Read Statistics: Plain and Simple, Module 18
• Read Statistics: Plain and Simple, Module 19
• Read Statistics: Plain and Simple, Module 20
• Review Instructional Materials
Discussion 11

Describe a research effort where you'd need a Multiple Regression analysis.

• List three variables (X1, X2, X3) you’d include in a Multiple Regression Model in order to better predict an outcome (Y) variable.For example, you might list three variables that could be related to how long a person will live (Y).Or you might list three variables that contribute to a successful restaurant.Your Regression Model should have three variables that will act as “predictors” (X1, X2, X3) of a “criterion” (Y’).Note that the outcome must be a “Measurement” variable, that is something that is measured on a scale like inches, pounds, IQ,lifespan, stock value, etc.Not a categorical variable such as gender, political party, voting, etc.
• Go to another student’s post, and for each predictor variable (X1, X2, X3) describe what the expected direction of the relationship between each X and the criterion or Y variable would be.    For example if someone used gender as a predictor (X1) of longevity (Y’), would you expect women or men to live longer?  Make a guess for each of their three predictor variables.

Your initial post is due at 11:59 pm CT on Wednesday, with your response to at least one classmate by 11:59 pm CT on Sunday.

Discussion 12

Post a question about this or a prior week’s statistics post data for a correlation problem for another student to solve.  Then answer another student’s question and correlation problem. Suggestion:  your questions may be about the concepts and exercises found on online stat book referenced in Week 3. (Be sure to reference the site in your questions when you post them.)

Your initial post is due at 11:59 pm CT on Wednesday, with your response to at least one classmate by 11:59 pm CT on Sunday.

Complete Graded Quiz 6.  This is a multiple-choice quiz over the week’s readings.  The number of questions will vary based on the amount of content covered during the week.  You will only receive one attempt per graded quiz.  There is no time limit on these weekly quizzes.  You may use your book to help you find the answers.  Each quiz will open at 12:01 am CT on Monday and is due by 11:59 PM CT on Sunday of the week.

Course Evaluation
Please evaluate the course. You will have an opportunity to evaluate the course near the end of the session. A link sent to your CougarMail will allow you to access the evaluation. Please note that these evaluations are provided so that I can improve the course, find out what students perceive to be its strengths and weaknesses, and in general assess the success of the course. Please do take the time to fill this out.
Week 7: Applications of Statistics to More than Two Groups, ANOVA
• Read Statistics: Plain and Simple, Module 13
• Read Statistics: Plain and Simple, Module 14
• Review Instructional Materials
Discussion 13

Post a graph you’ve found in the popular media.  What type of data is represented (type of scale) and what type of graph is it?

Your initial post is due at 11:59 pm CT on Wednesday, with your response to at least one classmate by 11:59 pm CT on Sunday.

Discussion 14

What did you like about the course?  What was the most difficult concept to understand?  What advice would you provide future students in this class?

Your initial post is due at 11:59 pm CT on Wednesday, with your response to at least one classmate by 11:59 pm CT on Sunday.

Complete Graded Quiz 7.  This is a multiple-choice quiz over the week’s readings.  The number of questions will vary based on the amount of content covered during the week.  You will only receive one attempt per graded quiz.  There is no time limit on these weekly quizzes.  You may use your book to help you find the answers.  Each quiz will open at 12:01 am CT on Monday and is due by 11:59 PM CT on Sunday of the week.

Week 8: Analysis of Variance and Review
• Read Statistics: Plain and Simple, Module 13
• Read Statistics: Plain and Simple, Module 14
• Read Statistics: Plain and Simple, Module 16
• Review Instructional Materials
Discussion 15
• What is more useful for computing and understanding a measure of something, the average or the standard deviation? Why?
• Why would you use a nonparametric statistic?
• If two things are correlated, does that mean one thing is causing the other to happen?
• Describe an experiment requiring the statistic ANOVA for analysis. Describe the Dependent Variable, the Independent Variable, the Levels of the Independent variable, and make sure you are using the correct types of data for each variable.

Your initial post is due at 11:59 pm CT on Wednesday, with your response to at least one classmate by 11:59 pm CT on Saturday.

Final Exam

You will take a proctored, comprehensive final exam during Week 8 which will consist of 50 multiple choice and matching questions from all of the assigned readings throughout the course.  You must provide your proctor information during Week 2.  Failure to schedule your exam with an approved proctor will not be considered as an excuse for not being able to take the exam. You will be given only one attempt.  You may not use your books or any other materials to assist you during this final exam.  The exam will open Monday of Week 8 at 12:01 AM CT and is due by 11:59 PM Saturday.

### Course Policies

#### Student Conduct

All Columbia College students, whether enrolled in a land-based or online course, are responsible for behaving in a manner consistent with Columbia College's Student Conduct Code and Acceptable Use Policy. Students violating these policies will be referred to the office of Student Affairs and/or the office of Academic Affairs for possible disciplinary action. The Student Code of Conduct and the Computer Use Policy for students can be found in the Columbia College Student Handbook. The Handbook is available online; you can also obtain a copy by calling the Student Affairs office (Campus Life) at 573-875-7400. The teacher maintains the right to manage a positive learning environment, and all students must adhere to the conventions of online etiquette.

#### Plagiarism

Your grade will be based in large part on the originality of your ideas and your written presentation of these ideas. Presenting the words, ideas, or expression of another in any form as your own is plagiarism. Students who fail to properly give credit for information contained in their written work (papers, journals, exams, etc.) are violating the intellectual property rights of the original author. For proper citation of the original authors, you should reference the appropriate publication manual for your degree program or course (APA, MLA, etc.). Violations are taken seriously in higher education and may result in a failing grade on the assignment, a grade of "F" for the course, or dismissal from the College.

Collaboration conducted between students without prior permission from the instructor is considered plagiarism and will be treated as such. Spouses and roommates taking the same course should be particularly careful.

All required papers may be submitted for textual similarity review to Turnitin.com for the detection of plagiarism. All submitted papers may be included in the Turnitin.com reference database for the purpose of detecting plagiarism. This service is subject to the Terms and Conditions of Use posted on the Turnitin.com site.

#### Non-Discrimination

There will be no discrimination on the basis of sex, race, color, national origin, sexual orientation, religion, ideology, political affiliation, veteran status, age, physical handicap, or marital status.

#### Student Accessibility Resources

Students with documented disabilities who may need academic services for this course are required to register with the office of Student Accessibility Resources. Until the student has been cleared through this office, accommodations do not have to be granted. If you are a student who has a documented disability, it is important for you to read the entire syllabus as soon as possible. The structure or the content of the course may make an accommodation not feasible. Student Accessibility Resources is located in Student Affairs in AHSC 215 and can be reached by phone at (573) 875-7626 or email at sar@ccis.edu.

#### Online Participation

You are expected to read the assigned texts and participate in the discussions and other course activities each week. Assignments should be posted by the due dates stated on the grading schedule in your syllabus. If an emergency arises that prevents you from participating in class, please let your instructor know as soon as possible.

#### Attendance Policy

Attendance for a week will be counted as having submitted any assigned activity for which points are earned. Attendance for the week is based upon the date work is submitted. A class week is defined as the period of time between Monday and Sunday (except for week 8, when the work and the course will end on Saturday at midnight.) The course and system deadlines are based on the Central Time Zone.

#### Cougar Email

All students are provided a CougarMail account when they enroll in classes at Columbia College. You are responsible for monitoring email from that account for important messages from the College and from your instructor. You may forward your Cougar email account to another account; however, the College cannot be held responsible for breaches in security or service interruptions with other email providers.

Students should use email for private messages to the instructor and other students. The class discussions are for public messages so the class members can each see what others have to say about any given topic and respond.

#### Late Assignment Policy

An online class requires regular participation and a commitment to your instructor and your classmates to regularly engage in the reading, discussion and writing assignments. Although most of the online communication for this course is asynchronous, you must be able to commit to the schedule of work for the class for the next eight weeks. You must keep up with the schedule of reading and writing to successfully complete the class.

No late discussion posts will be accepted.

Late quizzes will only be accepted for extenuating circumstances and you must contact the instructor to submit late quizzes after the Sunday, 11:59 pm CT deadline.

#### Course Evaluation

You will have an opportunity to evaluate the course near the end of the session. A link will be sent to your CougarMail that will allow you to access the evaluation. Be assured that the evaluations are anonymous and that your instructor will not be able to see them until after final grades are submitted.

#### Proctor Policy

Students taking courses that require proctored exams must submit their completed proctor request forms to their instructors by the end of the second week of the session. Proctors located at Columbia College campuses are automatically approved. The use of ProctorU services is also automatically approved. The instructor of each course will consider any other choice of proctor for approval or denial. Additional proctor choices the instructor will consider include: public librarians, high school or college instructors, high school or college counseling services, commanding officers, education service officers, and other proctoring services. Personal friends, family members, athletic coaches and direct supervisors are not acceptable.

#### Orientation for New Students

This course is offered online, using course management software provided by Desire2Learn and Columbia College. The course user guide provides details about taking an online course at Columbia College. You may also want to visit the course demonstration to view a sample course before this one opens.

#### Technical Support

If you have problems accessing the course or posting your assignments, contact your instructor, the Columbia College Helpdesk, or the D2L Helpdesk for assistance. Contact information is also available within the online course environment.

#### Online Tutoring

Smarthinking is a free online tutoring service available to all Columbia College students. Smarthinking provides real-time online tutoring and homework help for Math, English, and Writing. Smarthinking also provides access to live tutorials in writing and math, as well as a full range of study resources, including writing manuals, sample problems, and study skills manuals. You can access the service from wherever you have a connection to the Internet. I encourage you to take advantage of this free service provided by the college.